The measurement of H/V is documented in several places:

- http://www.geopsy.org/documentation/geopsy/hv.html" which has a description page at
- http://www.geopsy.org/wiki/index.php/H/V_spectral_ratio
- Guidelines for the implementation of the H/V spectral ratio technique on ambient vibrations

This tutorial will focus on the generation of synthetic Z, N and E waveforms in Sac format.

After downloading execute the following commands:

gunzip -c HVNOISE.tgz | tar xf -This procedure creates a directory strucutre and puts the processing files there:

HVNOISE.dist/ HVNOISE.dist/DOITHVHF HVNOISE.dist/DOSPECRAT HVNOISE.dist/Models/ HVNOISE.dist/Models/ HVNOISE.dist/Models/soilm2.mod HVNOISE.dist/Models/soil.mod HVNOISE.dist/Models/CUS.mod

For the example here, we consider the velocity model HVNOISE.dist/Models/soilm2.mod. The dispersion curves for this model are given Figure 1. The fundamental and higher modes are plotted. The odd behavior for the Rayleigh wave pahse velocities near the velocity of about 0.8 km/s is due to the use of a causal Q operator and the low Q of the upper layer of the model. The group velocities are for infinite Q. The group velocities indicate that there could be arrivals propagating as slow as 80 m/s. (0.08 km/sec).

Fig. 1. Dispersion curves for the test model. The first row gives phase velocity and the second gives group velocity. The left column is for Love waves and the right is for Rayleigh waves. |

Figure 2 displays the Rayleigh wave ellipticity and the factor *A _{R} /sqrt(k)*. Although the synthetic noise in the example will have Love and Rayleigh wave contributions, the measured

I have dropped the phase term. Assuming that the UA_{R}1/sqrt(kr) U_{Z}U_{Z}

Fig. 2. Left: Rayleigh wave ellipticity for this model. Center: Rayleigh wave amplitude term. Right; Love wave amplitude term. |

From these two figures we can conclude that the fundamental mode dominates the spectral amplitude up to a frequency of about 9 Hz, and thus
the fundamental mode ellipticity at 2 Hz should be what controls the empirical *H/V* ratio. Because the excitation of the Love wave is comparable to that of the fundamental model rayleigh wave, we might say that the observed *H/V* ratio is dominated by the Rayleigh wave ellipticity near 2 Hz. Note that the important factor may be the frequency at which the *H/V* ratio is a maximum rather than the actual peak value of the ratio.

As set up, the script **DOITHVHF** ultimately creates
900 seconds of 3-component noise as the sac files *E.stk*,
*N.stk* and *Z.stk*. The user can then process
these time series to determine the H/V ratio using their
own or other routines. The script **DOSPECRAT** uses
these series to create CSV files of the amplitude spectra
through the **gsac** command *outcsv*.

The initial part of **DOSPECRAT** sets up the
parameters for the simulation. This part is as follows:

#!/bin/bash ##### # create a noise data set by generating synthetic # motions from randomly distributed point forces # applied at the surface # # To reflect real data we create individual segments # define the power spectra and finally the ratio tp get H/V # # This script is designed for high frequency # motions for local site studies ##### ##### # Velocity model ##### VMOD="Models/soilm2.mod" ##### # for surface wave synthetics ##### NMODE=100 The maximum number of modes to include depends on the velocity model ##### # noise sources: These occur in the region # -XMAX <= x <= XMAX # -YMAX <= y <= YMAX # except about a region DMIN about the receiver ##### DELTA=0.01 # sample interval in seconds DMIN=0.005 # exclude sources within DMIN km of receiver These may be adequate for a local survey at high frequency XMAX=1.000 # define source region YMAX=1.000 ##### # define the receiver coordinate # XR,YR ##### XR=0.0 YR=0.0 ##### TMAX=900 # The sac file will 0 to TMAX seconds long # NSRC=10000 # number of random sources This is an extensive run # these will occur at intervals of TMAX/NSRC seconds ################### do not change after here #####################

The next part of the script defines some functions. The details of the functions are not given in this description.

function getvmodextreme () { ##### # examine the velocity model to determine the # minimum and maximum shear velocities which # will be used for the noise sampling # # the following are returned globally: # VMIN - minimum S velocity in the model # VMAX - maximum S velocity in the model ##### } function getsrc() { ##### # get random coordinates in the region # -XMAX ≤ x ≤ XMAX # -YMAX ≤ y ≤ YMAX # # the following are returned globally: # (XS,YS) - source coordinates in km # (EVAL,EVLO) - source coordinate in geocentrc coordinates # - for simplicity the receivers are assumed to be # - near (0,0) so that te conversion from km to degree # - does is essentially cartesian ##### } function getforce() { ##### # get the components for the force to be applied at the surface # the following are returned globally: # FN - force component in north direction # FE - force component in east direction # FD - force component in down direction # ##### }

The last part of the script performs the simulation:

##### everything below here does the synthetic of the noise ##### ##### # clean up previouse run ##### rm -f ??????.stk ##### # get the extreme values of the S velocity from the model ##### getvmodextreme echo VMIN=$VMIN VMAX=$VMAX ##### # first generate the eigenfunctions so that the # synthetics can be made # The time window must be long enough to encompass the # arrivals at the fastest and slowest velocities ##### NPT=`echo $XMAX $YMAX $VMIN $VMAX $DELTA | awk \ '{ DIST=sqrt($1*$1 + $2*$2) ; TWIN=(DIST/$3 ) ; print int(TWIN/$5)}' ` DIST=`echo $XMAX $YMAX | awk '{print sqrt($1*$1 + $2*$2)}' ` echo DIST $DIST XMAX $XMAX YMAX $YMAX cat > ddfile << EOF ${DIST} ${DELTA} ${NPT} 0.0 0.0 EOF sprep96 -M ${VMOD} -HS 0 -HR 0 -L -R -NMOD ${NMODE} -d ddfile sdisp96 sregn96 slegn96 FNYQ=`echo $DELTA | awk '{print 0.5/$1}' ` ##### # make plot of the dispersion of the form # LC RC # LU RU ##### rm -fr S?EGN?.PLT rm -f DISP.PLT sdpegn96 -L -C -XLIN -YLIN -X0 2.0 -Y0 8 -XLEN 6 -YLEN 6 -YMIN 0 -YMAX ${VMAX} -XMIN 0.0 -XMAX ${FNYQ} sdpegn96 -L -U -XLIN -YLIN -X0 2.0 -Y0 1 -XLEN 6 -YLEN 6 -YMIN 0 -YMAX ${VMAX} -XMIN 0.0 -XMAX ${FNYQ} sdpegn96 -R -C -XLIN -YLIN -X0 9.5 -Y0 8 -XLEN 6 -YLEN 6 -YMIN 0 -YMAX ${VMAX} -XMIN 0.0 -XMAX ${FNYQ} sdpegn96 -R -U -XLIN -YLIN -X0 9.5 -Y0 1 -XLEN 6 -YLEN 6 -YMIN 0 -YMAX ${VMAX} -XMIN 0.0 -XMAX ${FNYQ} cat S?EGN?.PLT > DISP.PLT ##### # now make the synthetics # for each subsource # get source coordinates # get force orientation # make synthetic # use gsac to apply the force # open the synthetic using cut o 0 o TMAX # save # then stack the subsources ##### count=1 while [ $count -lt ${NSRC} ] do SRC=`echo $count | awk '{printf "%6.6d", $1}' ` getsrc # echo $EVLA $EVLO $XS $YS getforce # echo $FN $FE $FD DIST=`echo $XS $YS $XR $YR | awk '{ DX=$1-$3; DY=$2-$4;print sqrt(DX*DX + DY*DY)}'` ##### # Y = north # X = east ##### AZ=`echo $XS $YS $XR $YR | awk '{DX=$3-$1;DY=$4-$2;print atan2(DX,DY)*180/3.1514927 }' ` BAZ=`echo $XR $YR $XS $YS| awk '{DX=$3-$1;DY=$4-$2;print atan2(DX,DY)*180/3.1514927 }' ` TSHIFT=`echo $SRC $NSRC $TMAX | awk '{WIN=$3/$2; print ($1 -1.) * WIN}'` ###### # check to see that DIST > DMIN ##### ANS=`echo $DIST $DMIN | awk '{ if ( $1 >= $2 ) print "YES" ; else print "NO" }' ` if [ $ANS = "YES" ] then cat > dfile << EOF ${DIST} ${DELTA} ${NPT} 0.0 0.0 EOF ##### # clean up from previous run ##### rm -f *.[ZRT][DSEHV][[DSXF] spulse96 -V -p -l 2 -d dfile -EXF | f96tosac -G F=`ls *.ZVF` B=`basename $F .ZVF` gsac << EOF mt to ZNE AZ ${AZ} BAZ ${BAZ} FN $FN FE $FE FD $FD FILE $B shift F ${TSHIFT} w q EOF mv T.Z ${SRC}.Z mv T.N ${SRC}.N mv T.E ${SRC}.E count=`expr $count + 1 ` fi done ##### # make the final stack ##### gsac << EOF cut o o ${TMAX} r ??????.E stack relative ch kcmpnm E w E.stk r ??????.N stack relative ch kcmpnm N w N.stk r ??????.Z stack relative ch kcmpnm Z w Z.stk q EOF

The script assumes that the three-component noise data set is 900 seconds long. It then processes succeeding 50 sec windows of the simulated nosie by removing a mean trend, applying a Hanning window, computing the spectra, saving the amplitude spectrum, smoothing it using a 21 point mean smoother, and then saving the result as a CSV file (which can be read by Excel).

Then **awk** is used to form the ratio of the geometric mean
of horizontal spectra to the vertical spectra for each window.
When this is done an arithmetic average of the ratios is formed.

Finally **genplt** is used to make a plot of the individual
estimates of the H/V ratio. The result is shown in the next
figure:

Fig. 3. Plot of individual H/V ratios (red) and the average ratio |

This is a forward simulation. This tutorial does not consider te inverse problem of how the H/V ratio can be use to define structure.