Location

Location ANSS

2016/05/05 13:49:30 36.478 -113.989 11.1 3.8 Arizona

Focal Mechanism

 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2016/05/05 13:49:30:0  36.48 -113.99  11.1 3.8 Arizona
 
 Stations used:
   AE.113A AE.U15A AE.W13A AE.Y14A CI.CCA CI.ELS2 CI.GLA 
   CI.GSC CI.ISA CI.LDF CI.PMD CI.RAG II.PFO IM.NV31 NN.GWY 
   NN.LCH NN.LHV NN.PRN NN.Q09A NN.QSM NN.S11A NN.SHP NN.SPR3 
   TA.R11A TA.W18A US.DUG US.TPNV US.WUAZ UU.CCUT UU.LCMT 
   UU.PKCU UU.PSUT UU.VRUT 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
   rtr
   taper w 0.1
   hp c 0.03 n 3 
   lp c 0.07 n 3 
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 4.95e+21 dyne-cm
  Mw = 3.73 
  Z  = 9 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1      195    65   -80
   NP2      352    27   -110
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   4.95e+21     19     278
    N   0.00e+00      9      11
    P  -4.95e+21     68     125

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx    -1.39e+20
       Mxy    -2.59e+20
       Mxz     1.16e+21
       Myy     3.88e+21
       Myz    -2.94e+21
       Mzz    -3.74e+21
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     #########--###                  
                 #############----#####              
              ###############-------######           
             ##############-----------#####          
           ###############-------------######        
          ###############----------------#####       
         ###############-----------------######      
        ###############-------------------######     
        ##   ##########--------------------#####     
       ### T #########---------------------######    
       ###   #########---------------------######    
       ##############----------   ---------######    
       ##############---------- P ---------######    
        #############----------   ---------#####     
        ############-----------------------#####     
         ###########----------------------#####      
          ##########---------------------#####       
           #########---------------------####        
             ########------------------####          
              #######-----------------####           
                 #####--------------###              
                     #-----------##                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -3.74e+21   1.16e+21   2.94e+21 
  1.16e+21  -1.39e+20   2.59e+20 
  2.94e+21   2.59e+20   3.88e+21 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20160505134930/index.html
        

Preferred Solution

The preferred solution from an analysis of the surface-wave spectral amplitude radiation pattern, waveform inversion and first motion observations is

      STK = 195
      DIP = 65
     RAKE = -80
       MW = 3.73
       HS = 9.0

The NDK file is 20160505134930.ndk The waveform inversion is preferred.

Moment Tensor Comparison

The following compares this source inversion to others
SLU
UNR
 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2016/05/05 13:49:30:0  36.48 -113.99  11.1 3.8 Arizona
 
 Stations used:
   AE.113A AE.U15A AE.W13A AE.Y14A CI.CCA CI.ELS2 CI.GLA 
   CI.GSC CI.ISA CI.LDF CI.PMD CI.RAG II.PFO IM.NV31 NN.GWY 
   NN.LCH NN.LHV NN.PRN NN.Q09A NN.QSM NN.S11A NN.SHP NN.SPR3 
   TA.R11A TA.W18A US.DUG US.TPNV US.WUAZ UU.CCUT UU.LCMT 
   UU.PKCU UU.PSUT UU.VRUT 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
   rtr
   taper w 0.1
   hp c 0.03 n 3 
   lp c 0.07 n 3 
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 4.95e+21 dyne-cm
  Mw = 3.73 
  Z  = 9 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1      195    65   -80
   NP2      352    27   -110
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   4.95e+21     19     278
    N   0.00e+00      9      11
    P  -4.95e+21     68     125

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx    -1.39e+20
       Mxy    -2.59e+20
       Mxz     1.16e+21
       Myy     3.88e+21
       Myz    -2.94e+21
       Mzz    -3.74e+21
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     #########--###                  
                 #############----#####              
              ###############-------######           
             ##############-----------#####          
           ###############-------------######        
          ###############----------------#####       
         ###############-----------------######      
        ###############-------------------######     
        ##   ##########--------------------#####     
       ### T #########---------------------######    
       ###   #########---------------------######    
       ##############----------   ---------######    
       ##############---------- P ---------######    
        #############----------   ---------#####     
        ############-----------------------#####     
         ###########----------------------#####      
          ##########---------------------#####       
           #########---------------------####        
             ########------------------####          
              #######-----------------####           
                 #####--------------###              
                     #-----------##                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -3.74e+21   1.16e+21   2.94e+21 
  1.16e+21  -1.39e+20   2.59e+20 
  2.94e+21   2.59e+20   3.88e+21 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20160505134930/index.html
	
Moment Tensor (Mw)
Moment	5.442e+14 N-m
Magnitude	3.8 Mw
Depth	8.0 km
Percent DC	100 %
Half Duration	–
Catalog	NN
Data Source	NN1
Contributor	NN1
Nodal Planes
Plane	Strike	Dip	Rake
NP1	353	25	-112
NP2	197	67	-80
Principal Axes
Axis	Value	Plunge	Azimuth
T	5.441e+14 N-m	21	279
N	0.002e+14 N-m	9	13
P	-5.443e+14 N-m	67	125

        

Magnitudes

ML Magnitude


(a) ML computed using the IASPEI formula for Horizontal components; (b) ML residuals computed using a modified IASPEI formula that accounts for path specific attenuation; the values used for the trimmed mean are indicated. The ML relation used for each figure is given at the bottom of each plot.


(a) ML computed using the IASPEI formula for Vertical components (research); (b) ML residuals computed using a modified IASPEI formula that accounts for path specific attenuation; the values used for the trimmed mean are indicated. The ML relation used for each figure is given at the bottom of each plot.

Context

The next figure presents the focal mechanism for this earthquake (red) in the context of other events (blue) in the SLU Moment Tensor Catalog which are within ± 0.5 degrees of the new event. This comparison is shown in the left panel of the figure. The right panel shows the inferred direction of maximum compressive stress and the type of faulting (green is strike-slip, red is normal, blue is thrust; oblique is shown by a combination of colors).

Waveform Inversion

The focal mechanism was determined using broadband seismic waveforms. The location of the event and the and stations used for the waveform inversion are shown in the next figure.
Location of broadband stations used for waveform inversion

The program wvfgrd96 was used with good traces observed at short distance to determine the focal mechanism, depth and seismic moment. This technique requires a high quality signal and well determined velocity model for the Green functions. To the extent that these are the quality data, this type of mechanism should be preferred over the radiation pattern technique which requires the separate step of defining the pressure and tension quadrants and the correct strike.

The observed and predicted traces are filtered using the following gsac commands:

cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
rtr
taper w 0.1
hp c 0.03 n 3 
lp c 0.07 n 3 
The results of this grid search from 0.5 to 19 km depth are as follow:

           DEPTH  STK   DIP  RAKE   MW    FIT
WVFGRD96    1.0     5    45   -95   3.43 0.3232
WVFGRD96    2.0     5    50   -90   3.52 0.3615
WVFGRD96    3.0   210    45   -55   3.56 0.3150
WVFGRD96    4.0   200    80   -80   3.64 0.3739
WVFGRD96    5.0   195    75   -80   3.64 0.4336
WVFGRD96    6.0   195    70   -80   3.64 0.4754
WVFGRD96    7.0   195    65   -80   3.66 0.5027
WVFGRD96    8.0   195    65   -80   3.73 0.5211
WVFGRD96    9.0   195    65   -80   3.73 0.5344
WVFGRD96   10.0   200    65   -75   3.73 0.5337
WVFGRD96   11.0   200    65   -75   3.72 0.5256
WVFGRD96   12.0   200    65   -75   3.72 0.5113
WVFGRD96   13.0   200    65   -70   3.72 0.4936
WVFGRD96   14.0   200    65   -70   3.72 0.4739
WVFGRD96   15.0   205    70   -65   3.71 0.4549
WVFGRD96   16.0   210    75   -60   3.71 0.4362
WVFGRD96   17.0   210    75   -60   3.72 0.4184
WVFGRD96   18.0   210    80   -55   3.72 0.4022
WVFGRD96   19.0   210    85   -55   3.72 0.3866
WVFGRD96   20.0    50    75    45   3.75 0.3731
WVFGRD96   21.0    35    90    55   3.74 0.3591
WVFGRD96   22.0    35    85    55   3.75 0.3459
WVFGRD96   23.0    35    85    55   3.75 0.3333
WVFGRD96   24.0    35    85    55   3.76 0.3206
WVFGRD96   25.0    35    85    55   3.76 0.3083
WVFGRD96   26.0   155    45    40   3.76 0.2960
WVFGRD96   27.0   150    50    35   3.77 0.2874
WVFGRD96   28.0   150    50    35   3.77 0.2789
WVFGRD96   29.0   155    50    40   3.77 0.2706

The best solution is

WVFGRD96    9.0   195    65   -80   3.73 0.5344

The mechanism correspond to the best fit is
Figure 1. Waveform inversion focal mechanism

The best fit as a function of depth is given in the following figure:

Figure 2. Depth sensitivity for waveform mechanism

The comparison of the observed and predicted waveforms is given in the next figure. The red traces are the observed and the blue are the predicted. Each observed-predicted component is plotted to the same scale and peak amplitudes are indicated by the numbers to the left of each trace. A pair of numbers is given in black at the right of each predicted traces. The upper number it the time shift required for maximum correlation between the observed and predicted traces. This time shift is required because the synthetics are not computed at exactly the same distance as the observed and because the velocity model used in the predictions may not be perfect. A positive time shift indicates that the prediction is too fast and should be delayed to match the observed trace (shift to the right in this figure). A negative value indicates that the prediction is too slow. The lower number gives the percentage of variance reduction to characterize the individual goodness of fit (100% indicates a perfect fit).

The bandpass filter used in the processing and for the display was

cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
rtr
taper w 0.1
hp c 0.03 n 3 
lp c 0.07 n 3 
Figure 3. Waveform comparison for selected depth. Red: observed; Blue - predicted. The time shift with respect to the model prediction is indicated. The percent of fit is also indicated.
Focal mechanism sensitivity at the preferred depth. The red color indicates a very good fit to thewavefroms. Each solution is plotted as a vector at a given value of strike and dip with the angle of the vector representing the rake angle, measured, with respect to the upward vertical (N) in the figure.

A check on the assumed source location is possible by looking at the time shifts between the observed and predicted traces. The time shifts for waveform matching arise for several reasons:

Assuming only a mislocation, the time shifts are fit to a functional form:

 Time_shift = A + B cos Azimuth + C Sin Azimuth

The time shifts for this inversion lead to the next figure:

The derived shift in origin time and epicentral coordinates are given at the bottom of the figure.

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Thanks also to the many seismic network operators whose dedication make this effort possible: University of Nevada Reno, University of Alaska, University of Washington, Oregon State University, University of Utah, Montana Bureas of Mines, UC Berkely, Caltech, UC San Diego, Saint Louis University, University of Memphis, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, the Iris stations and the Transportable Array of EarthScope.

Velocity Model

The WUS.model used for the waveform synthetic seismograms and for the surface wave eigenfunctions and dispersion is as follows:

MODEL.01
Model after     8 iterations
ISOTROPIC
KGS
FLAT EARTH
1-D
CONSTANT VELOCITY
LINE08
LINE09
LINE10
LINE11
      H(KM)   VP(KM/S)   VS(KM/S) RHO(GM/CC)         QP         QS       ETAP       ETAS      FREFP      FREFS
     1.9000     3.4065     2.0089     2.2150  0.302E-02  0.679E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     6.1000     5.5445     3.2953     2.6089  0.349E-02  0.784E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    13.0000     6.2708     3.7396     2.7812  0.212E-02  0.476E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    19.0000     6.4075     3.7680     2.8223  0.111E-02  0.249E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     0.0000     7.9000     4.6200     3.2760  0.164E-10  0.370E-10   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    

Quality Control

Here we tabulate the reasons for not using certain digital data sets

The following stations did not have a valid response files:

Last Changed Thu May 5 12:30:49 CDT 2016