Location

2016/01/07 04:27:28 36.475 -98.728 3.4 4.7 Oklahoma

Arrival Times (from USGS)

Arrival time list

Felt Map

USGS Felt map for this earthquake

USGS Felt reports main page

Focal Mechanism

 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2016/01/07 04:27:28:0  36.47  -98.73   3.4 4.7 Oklahoma
 
 Stations used:
   GS.KAN01 GS.KAN05 GS.KAN06 GS.KAN08 GS.KAN10 GS.KAN11 
   GS.KAN12 GS.KAN13 GS.KAN14 GS.KAN16 GS.KAN17 GS.OK030 
   GS.OK031 GS.OK034 GS.OK035 N4.T35B OK.BCOK OK.CCOK OK.CHOK 
   OK.CROK OK.GORE OK.OKCFA OK.QUOK OK.U32A TA.TUL1 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   cut o DIST/3.3 -20 o DIST/3.3 +25
   rtr
   taper w 0.1
   hp c 0.03 n 3 
   lp c 0.08 n 3 
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 5.37e+22 dyne-cm
  Mw = 4.42 
  Z  = 9 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1       48    81   -160
   NP2      315    70   -10
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   5.37e+22      7     180
    N   0.00e+00     68      72
    P  -5.37e+22     21     273

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx     5.27e+22
       Mxy     3.00e+21
       Mxz    -7.74e+21
       Myy    -4.67e+22
       Myz     1.78e+22
       Mzz    -5.99e+21
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     ##############                  
                 ######################              
              ############################           
             ---###########################          
           ----------#####################---        
          --------------#################-----       
         -----------------##############-------      
        ---------------------#########----------     
        -----------------------#####------------     
       ---   -------------------##---------------    
       --- P --------------------#---------------    
       ---   ------------------#####-------------    
       ---------------------#########------------    
        ------------------############----------     
        ----------------################--------     
         -------------###################------      
          ---------######################-----       
           -----##########################---        
             ##############################          
              ############################           
                 #########   ##########              
                     ##### T ######                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -5.99e+21  -7.74e+21  -1.78e+22 
 -7.74e+21   5.27e+22  -3.00e+21 
 -1.78e+22  -3.00e+21  -4.67e+22 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20160107042728/index.html
        

Preferred Solution

The preferred solution from an analysis of the surface-wave spectral amplitude radiation pattern, waveform inversion and first motion observations is

      STK = 315
      DIP = 70
     RAKE = -10
       MW = 4.42
       HS = 9.0

The NDK file is 20160107042728.ndk ML and mLg not determined because of interference of larger event 30 seconds later

Moment Tensor Comparison

The following compares this source inversion to others
SLU
USGSMT
 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2016/01/07 04:27:28:0  36.47  -98.73   3.4 4.7 Oklahoma
 
 Stations used:
   GS.KAN01 GS.KAN05 GS.KAN06 GS.KAN08 GS.KAN10 GS.KAN11 
   GS.KAN12 GS.KAN13 GS.KAN14 GS.KAN16 GS.KAN17 GS.OK030 
   GS.OK031 GS.OK034 GS.OK035 N4.T35B OK.BCOK OK.CCOK OK.CHOK 
   OK.CROK OK.GORE OK.OKCFA OK.QUOK OK.U32A TA.TUL1 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   cut o DIST/3.3 -20 o DIST/3.3 +25
   rtr
   taper w 0.1
   hp c 0.03 n 3 
   lp c 0.08 n 3 
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 5.37e+22 dyne-cm
  Mw = 4.42 
  Z  = 9 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1       48    81   -160
   NP2      315    70   -10
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   5.37e+22      7     180
    N   0.00e+00     68      72
    P  -5.37e+22     21     273

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx     5.27e+22
       Mxy     3.00e+21
       Mxz    -7.74e+21
       Myy    -4.67e+22
       Myz     1.78e+22
       Mzz    -5.99e+21
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     ##############                  
                 ######################              
              ############################           
             ---###########################          
           ----------#####################---        
          --------------#################-----       
         -----------------##############-------      
        ---------------------#########----------     
        -----------------------#####------------     
       ---   -------------------##---------------    
       --- P --------------------#---------------    
       ---   ------------------#####-------------    
       ---------------------#########------------    
        ------------------############----------     
        ----------------################--------     
         -------------###################------      
          ---------######################-----       
           -----##########################---        
             ##############################          
              ############################           
                 #########   ##########              
                     ##### T ######                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -5.99e+21  -7.74e+21  -1.78e+22 
 -7.74e+21   5.27e+22  -3.00e+21 
 -1.78e+22  -3.00e+21  -4.67e+22 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20160107042728/index.html
	
Regional Moment Tensor (Mwr)
Moment	1.609e+16 N-m
Magnitude	4.74
Depth	7.0 km
Percent DC	69%
Half Duration	–
Catalog	US (us10004bz1)
Data Source	US1
Contributor	US1
Nodal Planes
Plane	Strike	Dip	Rake
NP1	46	73	-166
NP2	312	77	-17
Principal Axes
Axis	Value	Plunge	Azimuth
T	1.726	2	359
N	-0.268	68	95
P	-1.458	21	268

        

Magnitudes

Context

The next figure presents the focal mechanism for this earthquake (red) in the context of other events (blue) in the SLU Moment Tensor Catalog which are within ± 0.5 degrees of the new event. This comparison is shown in the left panel of the figure. The right panel shows the inferred direction of maximum compressive stress and the type of faulting (green is strike-slip, red is normal, blue is thrust; oblique is shown by a combination of colors).

Waveform Inversion

The focal mechanism was determined using broadband seismic waveforms. The location of the event and the and stations used for the waveform inversion are shown in the next figure.
Location of broadband stations used for waveform inversion

The program wvfgrd96 was used with good traces observed at short distance to determine the focal mechanism, depth and seismic moment. This technique requires a high quality signal and well determined velocity model for the Green functions. To the extent that these are the quality data, this type of mechanism should be preferred over the radiation pattern technique which requires the separate step of defining the pressure and tension quadrants and the correct strike.

The observed and predicted traces are filtered using the following gsac commands:

cut o DIST/3.3 -20 o DIST/3.3 +25
rtr
taper w 0.1
hp c 0.03 n 3 
lp c 0.08 n 3 
The results of this grid search from 0.5 to 19 km depth are as follow:

           DEPTH  STK   DIP  RAKE   MW    FIT
WVFGRD96    1.0   135    85   -10   4.02 0.3914
WVFGRD96    2.0   135    80   -15   4.17 0.5308
WVFGRD96    3.0   315    90    15   4.21 0.5841
WVFGRD96    4.0   315    65    -5   4.27 0.6266
WVFGRD96    5.0   310    60   -15   4.32 0.6568
WVFGRD96    6.0   315    70   -10   4.33 0.6786
WVFGRD96    7.0   315    70   -10   4.36 0.6921
WVFGRD96    8.0   315    70   -10   4.39 0.6984
WVFGRD96    9.0   315    70   -10   4.42 0.6996
WVFGRD96   10.0   315    75   -10   4.43 0.6973
WVFGRD96   11.0   315    75   -10   4.45 0.6937
WVFGRD96   12.0   315    75   -10   4.46 0.6871
WVFGRD96   13.0   315    80   -10   4.47 0.6786
WVFGRD96   14.0   135    90    10   4.48 0.6656
WVFGRD96   15.0   135    90     5   4.49 0.6560
WVFGRD96   16.0   140    75   -10   4.51 0.6458
WVFGRD96   17.0   140    80   -10   4.51 0.6372
WVFGRD96   18.0   140    80   -10   4.52 0.6275
WVFGRD96   19.0   135    75   -10   4.52 0.6186
WVFGRD96   20.0   135    75   -10   4.53 0.6106
WVFGRD96   21.0   140    45     5   4.59 0.6046
WVFGRD96   22.0   140    45     5   4.60 0.6023
WVFGRD96   23.0   140    45     5   4.61 0.5995
WVFGRD96   24.0   140    45     5   4.62 0.5952
WVFGRD96   25.0   140    45     5   4.62 0.5904
WVFGRD96   26.0   140    45     5   4.63 0.5834
WVFGRD96   27.0   140    45     5   4.63 0.5767
WVFGRD96   28.0   140    45     5   4.64 0.5687
WVFGRD96   29.0   140    45     5   4.64 0.5586

The best solution is

WVFGRD96    9.0   315    70   -10   4.42 0.6996

The mechanism correspond to the best fit is
Figure 1. Waveform inversion focal mechanism

The best fit as a function of depth is given in the following figure:

Figure 2. Depth sensitivity for waveform mechanism

The comparison of the observed and predicted waveforms is given in the next figure. The red traces are the observed and the blue are the predicted. Each observed-predicted component is plotted to the same scale and peak amplitudes are indicated by the numbers to the left of each trace. A pair of numbers is given in black at the right of each predicted traces. The upper number it the time shift required for maximum correlation between the observed and predicted traces. This time shift is required because the synthetics are not computed at exactly the same distance as the observed and because the velocity model used in the predictions may not be perfect. A positive time shift indicates that the prediction is too fast and should be delayed to match the observed trace (shift to the right in this figure). A negative value indicates that the prediction is too slow. The lower number gives the percentage of variance reduction to characterize the individual goodness of fit (100% indicates a perfect fit).

The bandpass filter used in the processing and for the display was

cut o DIST/3.3 -20 o DIST/3.3 +25
rtr
taper w 0.1
hp c 0.03 n 3 
lp c 0.08 n 3 
Figure 3. Waveform comparison for selected depth. Red: observed; Blue - predicted. The time shift with respect to the model prediction is indicated. The percent of fit is also indicated.
Focal mechanism sensitivity at the preferred depth. The red color indicates a very good fit to thewavefroms. Each solution is plotted as a vector at a given value of strike and dip with the angle of the vector representing the rake angle, measured, with respect to the upward vertical (N) in the figure.

A check on the assumed source location is possible by looking at the time shifts between the observed and predicted traces. The time shifts for waveform matching arise for several reasons:

Assuming only a mislocation, the time shifts are fit to a functional form:

 Time_shift = A + B cos Azimuth + C Sin Azimuth

The time shifts for this inversion lead to the next figure:

The derived shift in origin time and epicentral coordinates are given at the bottom of the figure.

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Thanks also to the many seismic network operators whose dedication make this effort possible: University of Nevada Reno, University of Alaska, University of Washington, Oregon State University, University of Utah, Montana Bureas of Mines, UC Berkely, Caltech, UC San Diego, Saint Louis University, University of Memphis, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, the Iris stations and the Transportable Array of EarthScope.

Velocity Model

The WUS.model used for the waveform synthetic seismograms and for the surface wave eigenfunctions and dispersion is as follows:

MODEL.01
Model after     8 iterations
ISOTROPIC
KGS
FLAT EARTH
1-D
CONSTANT VELOCITY
LINE08
LINE09
LINE10
LINE11
      H(KM)   VP(KM/S)   VS(KM/S) RHO(GM/CC)         QP         QS       ETAP       ETAS      FREFP      FREFS
     1.9000     3.4065     2.0089     2.2150  0.302E-02  0.679E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     6.1000     5.5445     3.2953     2.6089  0.349E-02  0.784E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    13.0000     6.2708     3.7396     2.7812  0.212E-02  0.476E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    19.0000     6.4075     3.7680     2.8223  0.111E-02  0.249E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     0.0000     7.9000     4.6200     3.2760  0.164E-10  0.370E-10   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    

Quality Control

Here we tabulate the reasons for not using certain digital data sets

The following stations did not have a valid response files:

Last Changed Thu Jan 7 06:48:10 CST 2016