Location

2015/09/14 13:55:48 41.859 -119.627 9.7 4.7 Nevada

Arrival Times (from USGS)

Arrival time list

Felt Map

USGS Felt map for this earthquake

USGS Felt reports main page

Focal Mechanism

 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2015/09/14 13:55:48:0  41.86 -119.63   9.7 4.7 Nevada
 
 Stations used:
   BK.WDC IM.NV31 IU.COR IW.MFID LB.BMN NC.GDXB NC.KCPB 
   NC.KHMB NC.KRMB NC.MDPB NN.BEK NN.KVN NN.LHV NN.PAH NN.PNT 
   NN.REDF NN.RUB NN.RYN NN.SPR3 NN.VCN NN.WDEM NN.YER TA.R11A 
   UO.BUCK UO.PINE US.BMO US.ELK US.HAWA US.HLID US.WVOR 
   UW.BLOW UW.BRAN UW.CCRK UW.DDRF UW.IRON UW.IZEE UW.PHIN 
   UW.TREE UW.TUCA UW.UMAT UW.YACT 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
   rtr
   taper w 0.1
   hp c 0.02 n 3 
   lp c 0.10 n 3 
   br c 0.12 0.25 n 4 p 2
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 1.74e+23 dyne-cm
  Mw = 4.76 
  Z  = 9 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1       35    70   -55
   NP2      151    40   -148
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   1.74e+23     18     100
    N   0.00e+00     33     202
    P  -1.74e+23     52     346

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx    -5.79e+22
       Mxy    -1.10e+22
       Mxz    -9.05e+22
       Myy     1.49e+23
       Myz     6.98e+22
       Mzz    -9.15e+22
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     --------------                  
                 ----------------------              
              ##------------------------##           
             ##-------------------------###          
           ####---------   ------------######        
          ####---------- P ------------#######       
         #####----------   -----------#########      
        ######-----------------------###########     
        ######-----------------------###########     
       #######----------------------#############    
       #######---------------------##############    
       ########-------------------##########   ##    
       #########----------------############ T ##    
        ########---------------#############   #     
        #########------------###################     
         #########----------###################      
          ##########------####################       
           ###########--#####################        
             #########--###################          
              #####--------###############           
                 --------------########              
                     --------------                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -9.15e+22  -9.05e+22  -6.98e+22 
 -9.05e+22  -5.79e+22   1.10e+22 
 -6.98e+22   1.10e+22   1.49e+23 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20150914135548/index.html
        

Preferred Solution

The preferred solution from an analysis of the surface-wave spectral amplitude radiation pattern, waveform inversion and first motion observations is

      STK = 35
      DIP = 70
     RAKE = -55
       MW = 4.76
       HS = 9.0

The NDK file is 20150914135548.ndk The waveform inversion is preferred.

Moment Tensor Comparison

The following compares this source inversion to others
SLU
USGSMT
UNR
 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2015/09/14 13:55:48:0  41.86 -119.63   9.7 4.7 Nevada
 
 Stations used:
   BK.WDC IM.NV31 IU.COR IW.MFID LB.BMN NC.GDXB NC.KCPB 
   NC.KHMB NC.KRMB NC.MDPB NN.BEK NN.KVN NN.LHV NN.PAH NN.PNT 
   NN.REDF NN.RUB NN.RYN NN.SPR3 NN.VCN NN.WDEM NN.YER TA.R11A 
   UO.BUCK UO.PINE US.BMO US.ELK US.HAWA US.HLID US.WVOR 
   UW.BLOW UW.BRAN UW.CCRK UW.DDRF UW.IRON UW.IZEE UW.PHIN 
   UW.TREE UW.TUCA UW.UMAT UW.YACT 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
   rtr
   taper w 0.1
   hp c 0.02 n 3 
   lp c 0.10 n 3 
   br c 0.12 0.25 n 4 p 2
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 1.74e+23 dyne-cm
  Mw = 4.76 
  Z  = 9 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1       35    70   -55
   NP2      151    40   -148
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   1.74e+23     18     100
    N   0.00e+00     33     202
    P  -1.74e+23     52     346

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx    -5.79e+22
       Mxy    -1.10e+22
       Mxz    -9.05e+22
       Myy     1.49e+23
       Myz     6.98e+22
       Mzz    -9.15e+22
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     --------------                  
                 ----------------------              
              ##------------------------##           
             ##-------------------------###          
           ####---------   ------------######        
          ####---------- P ------------#######       
         #####----------   -----------#########      
        ######-----------------------###########     
        ######-----------------------###########     
       #######----------------------#############    
       #######---------------------##############    
       ########-------------------##########   ##    
       #########----------------############ T ##    
        ########---------------#############   #     
        #########------------###################     
         #########----------###################      
          ##########------####################       
           ###########--#####################        
             #########--###################          
              #####--------###############           
                 --------------########              
                     --------------                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -9.15e+22  -9.05e+22  -6.98e+22 
 -9.05e+22  -5.79e+22   1.10e+22 
 -6.98e+22   1.10e+22   1.49e+23 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20150914135548/index.html
	
Regional Moment Tensor (Mwr)
Moment	1.663e+16 N-m
Magnitude	4.75
Depth	9.0 km
Percent DC	75%
Half Duration	–
Catalog	US (us20003ja5)
Data Source	US3
Contributor	US3
Nodal Planes
Plane	Strike	Dip	Rake
NP1	30	65	-61
NP2	157	38	-136
Principal Axes
Axis	Value	Plunge	Azimuth
T	1.762	15	99
N	-0.219	26	196
P	-1.542	59	342

        
Mw
Moment	1.989e+16 N-m
Magnitude	4.80
Depth	8.0 km
Percent DC	98%
Half Duration	–
Catalog	NN (nn00510518)
Data Source	NN1
Contributor	NN1
Nodal Planes
Plane	Strike	Dip	Rake
NP1	34	67	-59
NP2	157	38	-141
Principal Axes
Axis	Value	Plunge	Azimuth
T	2.000	17	101
N	-0.024	28	201
P	-1.976	56	345

        

Magnitudes

mLg Magnitude


(a) mLg computed using the IASPEI formula; (b) mLg residuals ; the values used for the trimmed mean are indicated.

ML Magnitude


(a) ML computed using the IASPEI formula for Horizontal components; (b) ML residuals computed using a modified IASPEI formula that accounts for path specific attenuation; the values used for the trimmed mean are indicated. The ML relation used for each figure is given at the bottom of each plot.


(a) ML computed using the IASPEI formula for Vertical components (research); (b) ML residuals computed using a modified IASPEI formula that accounts for path specific attenuation; the values used for the trimmed mean are indicated. The ML relation used for each figure is given at the bottom of each plot.

Context

The next figure presents the focal mechanism for this earthquake (red) in the context of other events (blue) in the SLU Moment Tensor Catalog which are within ± 0.5 degrees of the new event. This comparison is shown in the left panel of the figure. The right panel shows the inferred direction of maximum compressive stress and the type of faulting (green is strike-slip, red is normal, blue is thrust; oblique is shown by a combination of colors).

Waveform Inversion

The focal mechanism was determined using broadband seismic waveforms. The location of the event and the and stations used for the waveform inversion are shown in the next figure.
Location of broadband stations used for waveform inversion

The program wvfgrd96 was used with good traces observed at short distance to determine the focal mechanism, depth and seismic moment. This technique requires a high quality signal and well determined velocity model for the Green functions. To the extent that these are the quality data, this type of mechanism should be preferred over the radiation pattern technique which requires the separate step of defining the pressure and tension quadrants and the correct strike.

The observed and predicted traces are filtered using the following gsac commands:

cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
rtr
taper w 0.1
hp c 0.02 n 3 
lp c 0.10 n 3 
br c 0.12 0.25 n 4 p 2
The results of this grid search from 0.5 to 19 km depth are as follow:

           DEPTH  STK   DIP  RAKE   MW    FIT
WVFGRD96    1.0   245    90     0   4.36 0.4145
WVFGRD96    2.0    60    90     0   4.49 0.5807
WVFGRD96    3.0    50    75   -35   4.59 0.6194
WVFGRD96    4.0    50    80   -50   4.66 0.6906
WVFGRD96    5.0    45    80   -55   4.69 0.7578
WVFGRD96    6.0    40    75   -55   4.70 0.7993
WVFGRD96    7.0    35    70   -55   4.71 0.8188
WVFGRD96    8.0    35    70   -60   4.77 0.8377
WVFGRD96    9.0    35    70   -55   4.76 0.8413
WVFGRD96   10.0    40    70   -50   4.75 0.8410
WVFGRD96   11.0    40    70   -50   4.76 0.8363
WVFGRD96   12.0    40    75   -45   4.76 0.8315
WVFGRD96   13.0    45    75   -40   4.76 0.8262
WVFGRD96   14.0    45    75   -40   4.77 0.8189
WVFGRD96   15.0    45    75   -40   4.78 0.8097
WVFGRD96   16.0    45    75   -40   4.79 0.7990
WVFGRD96   17.0    45    75   -40   4.79 0.7871
WVFGRD96   18.0    45    75   -40   4.80 0.7742
WVFGRD96   19.0    45    80   -35   4.81 0.7607
WVFGRD96   20.0    45    80   -35   4.82 0.7467
WVFGRD96   21.0    45    80   -40   4.83 0.7329
WVFGRD96   22.0    45    80   -40   4.84 0.7178
WVFGRD96   23.0    45    80   -40   4.85 0.7022
WVFGRD96   24.0    45    80   -40   4.86 0.6855
WVFGRD96   25.0    45    80   -40   4.87 0.6688
WVFGRD96   26.0    45    80   -40   4.87 0.6509
WVFGRD96   27.0    45    85   -40   4.88 0.6341
WVFGRD96   28.0    45    85   -40   4.89 0.6179
WVFGRD96   29.0    45    85   -40   4.89 0.6004

The best solution is

WVFGRD96    9.0    35    70   -55   4.76 0.8413

The mechanism correspond to the best fit is
Figure 1. Waveform inversion focal mechanism

The best fit as a function of depth is given in the following figure:

Figure 2. Depth sensitivity for waveform mechanism

The comparison of the observed and predicted waveforms is given in the next figure. The red traces are the observed and the blue are the predicted. Each observed-predicted component is plotted to the same scale and peak amplitudes are indicated by the numbers to the left of each trace. A pair of numbers is given in black at the right of each predicted traces. The upper number it the time shift required for maximum correlation between the observed and predicted traces. This time shift is required because the synthetics are not computed at exactly the same distance as the observed and because the velocity model used in the predictions may not be perfect. A positive time shift indicates that the prediction is too fast and should be delayed to match the observed trace (shift to the right in this figure). A negative value indicates that the prediction is too slow. The lower number gives the percentage of variance reduction to characterize the individual goodness of fit (100% indicates a perfect fit).

The bandpass filter used in the processing and for the display was

cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
rtr
taper w 0.1
hp c 0.02 n 3 
lp c 0.10 n 3 
br c 0.12 0.25 n 4 p 2
Figure 3. Waveform comparison for selected depth. Red: observed; Blue - predicted. The time shift with respect to the model prediction is indicated. The percent of fit is also indicated.
Focal mechanism sensitivity at the preferred depth. The red color indicates a very good fit to thewavefroms. Each solution is plotted as a vector at a given value of strike and dip with the angle of the vector representing the rake angle, measured, with respect to the upward vertical (N) in the figure.

A check on the assumed source location is possible by looking at the time shifts between the observed and predicted traces. The time shifts for waveform matching arise for several reasons:

Assuming only a mislocation, the time shifts are fit to a functional form:

 Time_shift = A + B cos Azimuth + C Sin Azimuth

The time shifts for this inversion lead to the next figure:

The derived shift in origin time and epicentral coordinates are given at the bottom of the figure.

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Thanks also to the many seismic network operators whose dedication make this effort possible: University of Nevada Reno, University of Alaska, University of Washington, Oregon State University, University of Utah, Montana Bureas of Mines, UC Berkely, Caltech, UC San Diego, Saint Louis University, University of Memphis, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, the Iris stations and the Transportable Array of EarthScope.

Velocity Model

The WUS model used for the waveform synthetic seismograms and for the surface wave eigenfunctions and dispersion is as follows:

MODEL.01
Model after     8 iterations
ISOTROPIC
KGS
FLAT EARTH
1-D
CONSTANT VELOCITY
LINE08
LINE09
LINE10
LINE11
      H(KM)   VP(KM/S)   VS(KM/S) RHO(GM/CC)         QP         QS       ETAP       ETAS      FREFP      FREFS
     1.9000     3.4065     2.0089     2.2150  0.302E-02  0.679E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     6.1000     5.5445     3.2953     2.6089  0.349E-02  0.784E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    13.0000     6.2708     3.7396     2.7812  0.212E-02  0.476E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    19.0000     6.4075     3.7680     2.8223  0.111E-02  0.249E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     0.0000     7.9000     4.6200     3.2760  0.164E-10  0.370E-10   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    

Quality Control

Here we tabulate the reasons for not using certain digital data sets

The following stations did not have a valid response files:

Last Changed Mon Dec 7 00:07:21 CST 2015