Location

2014/11/19 08:44:44 61.796 -149.097 33.8 3.7 Alaska

Arrival Times (from USGS)

Arrival time list

Felt Map

USGS Felt map for this earthquake

USGS Felt reports main page

Focal Mechanism

 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2014/11/19 08:44:44:0  61.80 -149.10  33.8 3.7 Alaska
 
 Stations used:
   AK.BPAW AK.CAST AK.EYAK AK.GLI AK.KTH AK.PPD AK.RND AK.SAW 
   AK.SCM AK.SSN AK.SWD AK.TRF AT.PMR IM.IL31 IU.COLA TA.POKR 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
   rtr
   taper w 0.1
   hp c 0.03 n 3 
   lp c 0.07 n 3 
   br c 0.12 0.25 n 4 p 2
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 3.89e+21 dyne-cm
  Mw = 3.66 
  Z  = 38 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1      270    80   -50
   NP2       12    41   -165
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   3.89e+21     24     330
    N   0.00e+00     39      82
    P  -3.89e+21     41     217

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx     1.02e+21
       Mxy    -2.46e+21
       Mxz     2.80e+21
       Myy    -5.87e+13
       Myz     4.34e+20
       Mzz    -1.02e+21
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     ############--                  
                 ##################----              
              #####   ###############-----           
             ###### T ################-----          
           ########   #################------        
          #############################-------       
         ###############################-------      
        ################################--------     
        ################################--------     
       #################################---------    
       ###------------------------------######---    
       ---------------------------------#########    
       ---------------------------------#########    
        -------------------------------#########     
        -------------------------------#########     
         ----------   ----------------#########      
          --------- P ---------------#########       
           --------   --------------#########        
             ---------------------#########          
              -------------------#########           
                 -------------#########              
                     ------########                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -1.02e+21   2.80e+21  -4.34e+20 
  2.80e+21   1.02e+21   2.46e+21 
 -4.34e+20   2.46e+21  -5.87e+13 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20141119084444/index.html
        

Preferred Solution

The preferred solution from an analysis of the surface-wave spectral amplitude radiation pattern, waveform inversion and first motion observations is

      STK = 270
      DIP = 80
     RAKE = -50
       MW = 3.66
       HS = 38.0

The NDK file is 20141119084444.ndk The waveform inversion is preferred.

Moment Tensor Comparison

The following compares this source inversion to others
SLU
 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2014/11/19 08:44:44:0  61.80 -149.10  33.8 3.7 Alaska
 
 Stations used:
   AK.BPAW AK.CAST AK.EYAK AK.GLI AK.KTH AK.PPD AK.RND AK.SAW 
   AK.SCM AK.SSN AK.SWD AK.TRF AT.PMR IM.IL31 IU.COLA TA.POKR 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
   rtr
   taper w 0.1
   hp c 0.03 n 3 
   lp c 0.07 n 3 
   br c 0.12 0.25 n 4 p 2
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 3.89e+21 dyne-cm
  Mw = 3.66 
  Z  = 38 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1      270    80   -50
   NP2       12    41   -165
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   3.89e+21     24     330
    N   0.00e+00     39      82
    P  -3.89e+21     41     217

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx     1.02e+21
       Mxy    -2.46e+21
       Mxz     2.80e+21
       Myy    -5.87e+13
       Myz     4.34e+20
       Mzz    -1.02e+21
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     ############--                  
                 ##################----              
              #####   ###############-----           
             ###### T ################-----          
           ########   #################------        
          #############################-------       
         ###############################-------      
        ################################--------     
        ################################--------     
       #################################---------    
       ###------------------------------######---    
       ---------------------------------#########    
       ---------------------------------#########    
        -------------------------------#########     
        -------------------------------#########     
         ----------   ----------------#########      
          --------- P ---------------#########       
           --------   --------------#########        
             ---------------------#########          
              -------------------#########           
                 -------------#########              
                     ------########                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -1.02e+21   2.80e+21  -4.34e+20 
  2.80e+21   1.02e+21   2.46e+21 
 -4.34e+20   2.46e+21  -5.87e+13 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20141119084444/index.html
	

Magnitudes

ML Magnitude


(a) ML computed using the IASPEI formula for Horizontal components; (b) ML residuals computed using a modified IASPEI formula that accounts for path specific attenuation; the values used for the trimmed mean are indicated. The ML relation used for each figure is given at the bottom of each plot.


(a) ML computed using the IASPEI formula for Vertical components (research); (b) ML residuals computed using a modified IASPEI formula that accounts for path specific attenuation; the values used for the trimmed mean are indicated. The ML relation used for each figure is given at the bottom of each plot.

Context

The next figure presents the focal mechanism for this earthquake (red) in the context of other events (blue) in the SLU Moment Tensor Catalog which are within ± 0.5 degrees of the new event. This comparison is shown in the left panel of the figure. The right panel shows the inferred direction of maximum compressive stress and the type of faulting (green is strike-slip, red is normal, blue is thrust; oblique is shown by a combination of colors).

Waveform Inversion

The focal mechanism was determined using broadband seismic waveforms. The location of the event and the and stations used for the waveform inversion are shown in the next figure.
Location of broadband stations used for waveform inversion

The program wvfgrd96 was used with good traces observed at short distance to determine the focal mechanism, depth and seismic moment. This technique requires a high quality signal and well determined velocity model for the Green functions. To the extent that these are the quality data, this type of mechanism should be preferred over the radiation pattern technique which requires the separate step of defining the pressure and tension quadrants and the correct strike.

The observed and predicted traces are filtered using the following gsac commands:

cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
rtr
taper w 0.1
hp c 0.03 n 3 
lp c 0.07 n 3 
br c 0.12 0.25 n 4 p 2
The results of this grid search from 0.5 to 19 km depth are as follow:

           DEPTH  STK   DIP  RAKE   MW    FIT
WVFGRD96    2.0   230    45   -85   3.28 0.3485
WVFGRD96    4.0   240    75   -35   3.37 0.3937
WVFGRD96    6.0   235    65   -30   3.45 0.4350
WVFGRD96    8.0    85    70    55   3.47 0.4562
WVFGRD96   10.0    85    75    50   3.45 0.4702
WVFGRD96   12.0    90    70    50   3.46 0.4945
WVFGRD96   14.0    90    70    45   3.47 0.5144
WVFGRD96   16.0    85    70    45   3.50 0.5315
WVFGRD96   18.0    80    75    40   3.52 0.5450
WVFGRD96   20.0    80    75    40   3.53 0.5549
WVFGRD96   22.0    80    75    40   3.55 0.5643
WVFGRD96   24.0   270    70   -40   3.57 0.5805
WVFGRD96   26.0   270    75   -40   3.59 0.6004
WVFGRD96   28.0   270    75   -45   3.61 0.6179
WVFGRD96   30.0   270    80   -50   3.61 0.6289
WVFGRD96   32.0   270    80   -50   3.63 0.6404
WVFGRD96   34.0   270    80   -50   3.64 0.6487
WVFGRD96   36.0   270    80   -50   3.65 0.6539
WVFGRD96   38.0   270    80   -50   3.66 0.6568
WVFGRD96   40.0   270    85   -65   3.77 0.6514
WVFGRD96   42.0   275    85   -65   3.79 0.6515
WVFGRD96   44.0    95    90    65   3.80 0.6485
WVFGRD96   46.0    95    90    65   3.81 0.6456
WVFGRD96   48.0   275    90   -65   3.82 0.6410
WVFGRD96   50.0    95    90    65   3.83 0.6348
WVFGRD96   52.0    95    90    70   3.84 0.6275
WVFGRD96   54.0   275    90   -70   3.85 0.6191
WVFGRD96   56.0   100    85    70   3.85 0.6133
WVFGRD96   58.0   100    85    70   3.86 0.6054
WVFGRD96   60.0   100    85    70   3.86 0.5979
WVFGRD96   62.0   100    85    75   3.87 0.5896
WVFGRD96   64.0   100    80    75   3.87 0.5834
WVFGRD96   66.0   100    80    75   3.88 0.5772
WVFGRD96   68.0   105    80    80   3.89 0.5700
WVFGRD96   70.0   105    80    85   3.90 0.5639
WVFGRD96   72.0   105    80    85   3.90 0.5587
WVFGRD96   74.0   105    80    85   3.91 0.5518
WVFGRD96   76.0   105    80    85   3.91 0.5456
WVFGRD96   78.0   105    80    85   3.91 0.5393
WVFGRD96   80.0   105    80    85   3.91 0.5329
WVFGRD96   82.0   105    75    90   3.93 0.5285
WVFGRD96   84.0   285    15    90   3.94 0.5230
WVFGRD96   86.0   280    15    85   3.94 0.5174
WVFGRD96   88.0   280    15    85   3.94 0.5088
WVFGRD96   90.0   280    20    85   3.96 0.5008
WVFGRD96   92.0   105    70    90   3.96 0.4910
WVFGRD96   94.0   280    20    85   3.96 0.4793
WVFGRD96   96.0   105    70    90   3.96 0.4643
WVFGRD96   98.0   110    70    90   3.95 0.4383

The best solution is

WVFGRD96   38.0   270    80   -50   3.66 0.6568

The mechanism correspond to the best fit is
Figure 1. Waveform inversion focal mechanism

The best fit as a function of depth is given in the following figure:

Figure 2. Depth sensitivity for waveform mechanism

The comparison of the observed and predicted waveforms is given in the next figure. The red traces are the observed and the blue are the predicted. Each observed-predicted component is plotted to the same scale and peak amplitudes are indicated by the numbers to the left of each trace. A pair of numbers is given in black at the right of each predicted traces. The upper number it the time shift required for maximum correlation between the observed and predicted traces. This time shift is required because the synthetics are not computed at exactly the same distance as the observed and because the velocity model used in the predictions may not be perfect. A positive time shift indicates that the prediction is too fast and should be delayed to match the observed trace (shift to the right in this figure). A negative value indicates that the prediction is too slow. The lower number gives the percentage of variance reduction to characterize the individual goodness of fit (100% indicates a perfect fit).

The bandpass filter used in the processing and for the display was

cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +70
rtr
taper w 0.1
hp c 0.03 n 3 
lp c 0.07 n 3 
br c 0.12 0.25 n 4 p 2
Figure 3. Waveform comparison for selected depth. Red: observed; Blue - predicted. The time shift with respect to the model prediction is indicated. The percent of fit is also indicated.
Focal mechanism sensitivity at the preferred depth. The red color indicates a very good fit to thewavefroms. Each solution is plotted as a vector at a given value of strike and dip with the angle of the vector representing the rake angle, measured, with respect to the upward vertical (N) in the figure.

A check on the assumed source location is possible by looking at the time shifts between the observed and predicted traces. The time shifts for waveform matching arise for several reasons:

Assuming only a mislocation, the time shifts are fit to a functional form:

 Time_shift = A + B cos Azimuth + C Sin Azimuth

The time shifts for this inversion lead to the next figure:

The derived shift in origin time and epicentral coordinates are given at the bottom of the figure.

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Thanks also to the many seismic network operators whose dedication make this effort possible: University of Nevada Reno, University of Alaska, University of Washington, Oregon State University, University of Utah, Montana Bureas of Mines, UC Berkely, Caltech, UC San Diego, Saint Louis University, University of Memphis, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, the Iris stations and the Transportable Array of EarthScope.

Velocity Model

The WUS model used for the waveform synthetic seismograms and for the surface wave eigenfunctions and dispersion is as follows:

MODEL.01
Model after     8 iterations
ISOTROPIC
KGS
FLAT EARTH
1-D
CONSTANT VELOCITY
LINE08
LINE09
LINE10
LINE11
      H(KM)   VP(KM/S)   VS(KM/S) RHO(GM/CC)         QP         QS       ETAP       ETAS      FREFP      FREFS
     1.9000     3.4065     2.0089     2.2150  0.302E-02  0.679E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     6.1000     5.5445     3.2953     2.6089  0.349E-02  0.784E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    13.0000     6.2708     3.7396     2.7812  0.212E-02  0.476E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    19.0000     6.4075     3.7680     2.8223  0.111E-02  0.249E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     0.0000     7.9000     4.6200     3.2760  0.164E-10  0.370E-10   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    

Quality Control

Here we tabulate the reasons for not using certain digital data sets

The following stations did not have a valid response files:

Last Changed Mon Dec 7 00:18:38 CST 2015