Location

2014/09/15 04:20:35 41.870 -119.632 1.3 3.5 Nevada

Arrival Times (from USGS)

Arrival time list

Felt Map

USGS Felt map for this earthquake

USGS Felt reports main page

Focal Mechanism

 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2014/09/15 04:20:35:0  41.87 -119.63   1.3 3.5 Nevada
 
 Stations used:
   IU.COR IW.MFID NN.RYN NN.WDEM NN.YER UO.PINE US.BMO US.ELK 
   US.HLID US.WVOR UW.BLOW UW.IRON UW.IZEE UW.TREE 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +60
   rtr
   taper w 0.1
   hp c 0.03 n 3 
   lp c 0.06 n 3 
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 1.88e+21 dyne-cm
  Mw = 3.45 
  Z  = 10 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1       30    75   -50
   NP2      137    42   -157
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   1.88e+21     20      91
    N   0.00e+00     38     198
    P  -1.88e+21     45     340

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx    -8.32e+20
       Mxy     2.72e+20
       Mxz    -8.96e+20
       Myy     1.55e+21
       Myz     9.26e+20
       Mzz    -7.21e+20
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     --------------                  
                 ---------------------#              
              ------------------------####           
             -------------------------#####          
           ##----------   -----------########        
          ###---------- P -----------#########       
         ####----------   ----------###########      
        #####----------------------#############     
        #####----------------------#############     
       ######---------------------###############    
       #######-------------------##########   ###    
       ########-----------------########### T ###    
       ########----------------############   ###    
        #########-------------##################     
        ##########----------####################     
         ###########-------####################      
          ###########-----####################       
           ##################################        
             ##########----################          
              #######------------#######--           
                 #---------------------              
                     --------------                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -7.21e+20  -8.96e+20  -9.26e+20 
 -8.96e+20  -8.32e+20  -2.72e+20 
 -9.26e+20  -2.72e+20   1.55e+21 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20140915042035/index.html
        

Preferred Solution

The preferred solution from an analysis of the surface-wave spectral amplitude radiation pattern, waveform inversion and first motion observations is

      STK = 30
      DIP = 75
     RAKE = -50
       MW = 3.45
       HS = 10.0

The NDK file is 20140915042035.ndk The waveform inversion is preferred.

Moment Tensor Comparison

The following compares this source inversion to others
SLU
UNR
 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2014/09/15 04:20:35:0  41.87 -119.63   1.3 3.5 Nevada
 
 Stations used:
   IU.COR IW.MFID NN.RYN NN.WDEM NN.YER UO.PINE US.BMO US.ELK 
   US.HLID US.WVOR UW.BLOW UW.IRON UW.IZEE UW.TREE 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +60
   rtr
   taper w 0.1
   hp c 0.03 n 3 
   lp c 0.06 n 3 
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 1.88e+21 dyne-cm
  Mw = 3.45 
  Z  = 10 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1       30    75   -50
   NP2      137    42   -157
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   1.88e+21     20      91
    N   0.00e+00     38     198
    P  -1.88e+21     45     340

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx    -8.32e+20
       Mxy     2.72e+20
       Mxz    -8.96e+20
       Myy     1.55e+21
       Myz     9.26e+20
       Mzz    -7.21e+20
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     --------------                  
                 ---------------------#              
              ------------------------####           
             -------------------------#####          
           ##----------   -----------########        
          ###---------- P -----------#########       
         ####----------   ----------###########      
        #####----------------------#############     
        #####----------------------#############     
       ######---------------------###############    
       #######-------------------##########   ###    
       ########-----------------########### T ###    
       ########----------------############   ###    
        #########-------------##################     
        ##########----------####################     
         ###########-------####################      
          ###########-----####################       
           ##################################        
             ##########----################          
              #######------------#######--           
                 #---------------------              
                     --------------                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -7.21e+20  -8.96e+20  -9.26e+20 
 -8.96e+20  -8.32e+20  -2.72e+20 
 -9.26e+20  -2.72e+20   1.55e+21 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20140915042035/index.html
	
REVIEWED BY NSL STAFF

Event ID:459506
Origin ID:1164227
Algorithm: Ichinose (2003) Long Period, Regional-Distance Waves
Seismic Moment Tensor Solution

2014/09/15 (258) 04:20:37.00 41.8700 -119.6323 1164227
	Depth =   8.0 (km)
	Mw    =  3.48
	Mo    =  2.07x10^21 (dyne x cm)

	Percent Double Couple = 100 %
	Percent CLVD          =   0 %
	no ISO calculated
	Epsilon=0.00
	 Percent Variance Reduction =  81.71 %
	 Total Fit                  =  77.38 
	Major Double Couple
		            strike dip   rake
		Nodal Plane 1: 145  40 -142
		Nodal Plane 2:  24  67  -57

	DEVIATORIC MOMENT TENSOR

	Moment Tensor Elements: Spherical Coordinates
		Mrr= -1.24 Mtt= -0.58 Mff=  1.82
		Mrt= -0.90 Mrf= -0.91 Mtf= -0.23 EXP=21


	Moment Tensor Elements: Cartesian Coordinates
		-0.58  0.23 -0.90
		 0.23  1.82  0.91
		-0.90  0.91 -1.24

	Eigenvalues:
		T-axis eigenvalue=  2.07
		N-axis eigenvalue=  0.00
		P-axis eigenvalue= -2.07

	Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Major Double Couple:
		T-axis ev= 2.07 trend=91 plunge=15
		N-axis ev= 0.00 trend=190 plunge=30
		P-axis ev=-2.07 trend=337 plunge=55

	Maximum Azmuithal Gap=244 Distance to Nearest Station= 55.3 (km)

	Number of Stations (D=Displacement/V=Velocity) Used=3 (defining only)
		
	 MOD.BK.D TREE.UW.D IRON.UW.D


              -----------------                             
          ---------------------####                         
        ###---------------------#####                       
      ####----------------------#######                     
     ####------   --------------#########                   
    ####------- P --------------##########                  
  -#####-------   -------------############                 
  ######-----------------------############                 
 #######-----------------------#############                
 #######----------------------##############                
 #######---------------------################               
 ########--------------------###########   ##               
 ########-------------------############ T ##               
 #########-----------------#############   ##               
 ##########---------------##################                
 ###########-------------###################                
  ###########-----------###################                 
   ############--------####################                 
   ##############-----####################                  
     ####################################                   
      #################################                     
        ###########----##############                       
          #######------------####-                          
              -----------------                             
                                                            


All Stations defining and nondefining: 
Station.Net 	Def 	Distance 	Azi    	Bazi  	lo-f 	hi-f vmodel
            	    	(km)     	(deg)  	(deg) 	(Hz) 	(Hz)    
MOD.BK (D) 	Y 	    55.3  	274  	 93  	0.020 	0.080 MOD.BK.wus.glib
TREE.UW (D) 	Y 	   140.8  	313  	132  	0.020 	0.080 TREE.UW.wus.glib
IRON.UW (D) 	Y 	   190.9  	 29  	210  	0.020 	0.080 IRON.UW.wus.glib

 (V)-velocity (D)-Displacement

Author: www-data
Date: 2014/09/15 13:10:19

mtinv Version 2.1_DEVEL OCT2008

        

Magnitudes

ML Magnitude


(a) ML computed using the IASPEI formula for Horizontal components; (b) ML residuals computed using a modified IASPEI formula that accounts for path specific attenuation; the values used for the trimmed mean are indicated. The ML relation used for each figure is given at the bottom of each plot.


(a) ML computed using the IASPEI formula for Vertical components (research); (b) ML residuals computed using a modified IASPEI formula that accounts for path specific attenuation; the values used for the trimmed mean are indicated. The ML relation used for each figure is given at the bottom of each plot.

Context

The next figure presents the focal mechanism for this earthquake (red) in the context of other events (blue) in the SLU Moment Tensor Catalog which are within ± 0.5 degrees of the new event. This comparison is shown in the left panel of the figure. The right panel shows the inferred direction of maximum compressive stress and the type of faulting (green is strike-slip, red is normal, blue is thrust; oblique is shown by a combination of colors).

Waveform Inversion

The focal mechanism was determined using broadband seismic waveforms. The location of the event and the and stations used for the waveform inversion are shown in the next figure.
Location of broadband stations used for waveform inversion

The program wvfgrd96 was used with good traces observed at short distance to determine the focal mechanism, depth and seismic moment. This technique requires a high quality signal and well determined velocity model for the Green functions. To the extent that these are the quality data, this type of mechanism should be preferred over the radiation pattern technique which requires the separate step of defining the pressure and tension quadrants and the correct strike.

The observed and predicted traces are filtered using the following gsac commands:

cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +60
rtr
taper w 0.1
hp c 0.03 n 3 
lp c 0.06 n 3 
The results of this grid search from 0.5 to 19 km depth are as follow:

           DEPTH  STK   DIP  RAKE   MW    FIT
WVFGRD96    1.0    35    65    25   3.13 0.3004
WVFGRD96    2.0    40    60    30   3.24 0.3689
WVFGRD96    3.0    50    60    50   3.31 0.3887
WVFGRD96    4.0    35    85   -55   3.36 0.4416
WVFGRD96    5.0    35    80   -55   3.37 0.4816
WVFGRD96    6.0    30    75   -55   3.39 0.5101
WVFGRD96    7.0    30    75   -50   3.39 0.5300
WVFGRD96    8.0    30    75   -55   3.45 0.5433
WVFGRD96    9.0    30    75   -50   3.45 0.5514
WVFGRD96   10.0    30    75   -50   3.45 0.5545
WVFGRD96   11.0    30    75   -45   3.46 0.5528
WVFGRD96   12.0    30    75   -45   3.46 0.5490
WVFGRD96   13.0    35    80   -40   3.46 0.5436
WVFGRD96   14.0   220    90    40   3.46 0.5348
WVFGRD96   15.0    35    80   -40   3.47 0.5301
WVFGRD96   16.0    35    85   -35   3.48 0.5214
WVFGRD96   17.0    35    85   -35   3.49 0.5138
WVFGRD96   18.0    35    85   -35   3.49 0.5059
WVFGRD96   19.0   220    90    35   3.50 0.4972
WVFGRD96   20.0    40    90   -35   3.50 0.4883
WVFGRD96   21.0    40    90   -35   3.51 0.4789
WVFGRD96   22.0   220    90    35   3.52 0.4695
WVFGRD96   23.0   220    90    35   3.52 0.4599
WVFGRD96   24.0    40    90   -35   3.53 0.4500
WVFGRD96   25.0    40    90   -35   3.54 0.4399
WVFGRD96   26.0    35    90   -35   3.55 0.4296
WVFGRD96   27.0   215    90    35   3.56 0.4191
WVFGRD96   28.0   215    90    35   3.56 0.4086
WVFGRD96   29.0   215    90    35   3.57 0.3985

The best solution is

WVFGRD96   10.0    30    75   -50   3.45 0.5545

The mechanism correspond to the best fit is
Figure 1. Waveform inversion focal mechanism

The best fit as a function of depth is given in the following figure:

Figure 2. Depth sensitivity for waveform mechanism

The comparison of the observed and predicted waveforms is given in the next figure. The red traces are the observed and the blue are the predicted. Each observed-predicted component is plotted to the same scale and peak amplitudes are indicated by the numbers to the left of each trace. A pair of numbers is given in black at the right of each predicted traces. The upper number it the time shift required for maximum correlation between the observed and predicted traces. This time shift is required because the synthetics are not computed at exactly the same distance as the observed and because the velocity model used in the predictions may not be perfect. A positive time shift indicates that the prediction is too fast and should be delayed to match the observed trace (shift to the right in this figure). A negative value indicates that the prediction is too slow. The lower number gives the percentage of variance reduction to characterize the individual goodness of fit (100% indicates a perfect fit).

The bandpass filter used in the processing and for the display was

cut o DIST/3.3 -30 o DIST/3.3 +60
rtr
taper w 0.1
hp c 0.03 n 3 
lp c 0.06 n 3 
Figure 3. Waveform comparison for selected depth. Red: observed; Blue - predicted. The time shift with respect to the model prediction is indicated. The percent of fit is also indicated.
Focal mechanism sensitivity at the preferred depth. The red color indicates a very good fit to thewavefroms. Each solution is plotted as a vector at a given value of strike and dip with the angle of the vector representing the rake angle, measured, with respect to the upward vertical (N) in the figure.

A check on the assumed source location is possible by looking at the time shifts between the observed and predicted traces. The time shifts for waveform matching arise for several reasons:

Assuming only a mislocation, the time shifts are fit to a functional form:

 Time_shift = A + B cos Azimuth + C Sin Azimuth

The time shifts for this inversion lead to the next figure:

The derived shift in origin time and epicentral coordinates are given at the bottom of the figure.

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Thanks also to the many seismic network operators whose dedication make this effort possible: University of Nevada Reno, University of Alaska, University of Washington, Oregon State University, University of Utah, Montana Bureas of Mines, UC Berkely, Caltech, UC San Diego, Saint Louis University, University of Memphis, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, the Iris stations and the Transportable Array of EarthScope.

Velocity Model

The WUS model used for the waveform synthetic seismograms and for the surface wave eigenfunctions and dispersion is as follows:

MODEL.01
Model after     8 iterations
ISOTROPIC
KGS
FLAT EARTH
1-D
CONSTANT VELOCITY
LINE08
LINE09
LINE10
LINE11
      H(KM)   VP(KM/S)   VS(KM/S) RHO(GM/CC)         QP         QS       ETAP       ETAS      FREFP      FREFS
     1.9000     3.4065     2.0089     2.2150  0.302E-02  0.679E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     6.1000     5.5445     3.2953     2.6089  0.349E-02  0.784E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    13.0000     6.2708     3.7396     2.7812  0.212E-02  0.476E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    19.0000     6.4075     3.7680     2.8223  0.111E-02  0.249E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     0.0000     7.9000     4.6200     3.2760  0.164E-10  0.370E-10   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    

Quality Control

Here we tabulate the reasons for not using certain digital data sets

The following stations did not have a valid response files:

Last Changed Mon Dec 7 00:15:36 CST 2015