Location

2010/09/12 20:09:44 43.12 -110.63 5.0 4.10 Wyoming

Arrival Times (from USGS)

Arrival time list

Felt Map

USGS Felt map for this earthquake

USGS Felt reports main page

Focal Mechanism

 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2010/09/12 20:09:44:0  43.12 -110.63   5.0 4.1 Wyoming
 
 Stations used:
   IW.DLMT IW.FLWY IW.FXWY IW.IMW IW.LOHW IW.MFID TA.H17A 
   US.AHID US.BW06 US.DUG US.HLID US.HWUT US.LKWY UU.BGU 
   UU.HVU 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   hp c 0.02 n 3
   lp c 0.06 n 3
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 1.10e+22 dyne-cm
  Mw = 3.96 
  Z  = 11 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1        0    55   -70
   NP2      148    40   -116
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   1.10e+22      8      76
    N   0.00e+00     16     168
    P  -1.10e+22     72     321

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx     0.00e+00
       Mxy     3.07e+21
       Mxz    -2.15e+21
       Myy     9.68e+21
       Myz     3.52e+21
       Mzz    -9.68e+21
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     ---------#####                  
                 --------------########              
              ##-----------------#########           
             ##-------------------#########          
           ###---------------------##########        
          ####---------------------###########       
         #####----------------------###########      
        ######----------------------#########        
        ######----------   ----------######## T      
       #######---------- P ----------########   #    
       #######----------   ----------############    
       ########----------------------############    
       ########----------------------############    
        ########---------------------###########     
        #########-------------------############     
         ##########-----------------###########      
          ##########---------------###########       
           ###########-------------##########        
             ###########----------#########          
              #############------#########           
                 ##############--######              
                     #########-----                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -9.68e+21  -2.15e+21  -3.52e+21 
 -2.15e+21   0.00e+00  -3.07e+21 
 -3.52e+21  -3.07e+21   9.68e+21 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20100912200944/index.html
        

Preferred Solution

The preferred solution from an analysis of the surface-wave spectral amplitude radiation pattern, waveform inversion and first motion observations is

      STK = 0
      DIP = 55
     RAKE = -70
       MW = 3.96
       HS = 11.0

The waveform inversion is preferred.

Moment Tensor Comparison

The following compares this source inversion to others
SLU
USGSMT
 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2010/09/12 20:09:44:0  43.12 -110.63   5.0 4.1 Wyoming
 
 Stations used:
   IW.DLMT IW.FLWY IW.FXWY IW.IMW IW.LOHW IW.MFID TA.H17A 
   US.AHID US.BW06 US.DUG US.HLID US.HWUT US.LKWY UU.BGU 
   UU.HVU 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   hp c 0.02 n 3
   lp c 0.06 n 3
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 1.10e+22 dyne-cm
  Mw = 3.96 
  Z  = 11 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1        0    55   -70
   NP2      148    40   -116
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   1.10e+22      8      76
    N   0.00e+00     16     168
    P  -1.10e+22     72     321

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx     0.00e+00
       Mxy     3.07e+21
       Mxz    -2.15e+21
       Myy     9.68e+21
       Myz     3.52e+21
       Mzz    -9.68e+21
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     ---------#####                  
                 --------------########              
              ##-----------------#########           
             ##-------------------#########          
           ###---------------------##########        
          ####---------------------###########       
         #####----------------------###########      
        ######----------------------#########        
        ######----------   ----------######## T      
       #######---------- P ----------########   #    
       #######----------   ----------############    
       ########----------------------############    
       ########----------------------############    
        ########---------------------###########     
        #########-------------------############     
         ##########-----------------###########      
          ##########---------------###########       
           ###########-------------##########        
             ###########----------#########          
              #############------#########           
                 ##############--######              
                     #########-----                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -9.68e+21  -2.15e+21  -3.52e+21 
 -2.15e+21   0.00e+00  -3.07e+21 
 -3.52e+21  -3.07e+21   9.68e+21 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20100912200944/index.html
	

        

Waveform Inversion

The focal mechanism was determined using broadband seismic waveforms. The location of the event and the and stations used for the waveform inversion are shown in the next figure.
Location of broadband stations used for waveform inversion

The program wvfgrd96 was used with good traces observed at short distance to determine the focal mechanism, depth and seismic moment. This technique requires a high quality signal and well determined velocity model for the Green functions. To the extent that these are the quality data, this type of mechanism should be preferred over the radiation pattern technique which requires the separate step of defining the pressure and tension quadrants and the correct strike.

The observed and predicted traces are filtered using the following gsac commands:

hp c 0.02 n 3
lp c 0.06 n 3
The results of this grid search from 0.5 to 19 km depth are as follow:

           DEPTH  STK   DIP  RAKE   MW    FIT
WVFGRD96    0.5    25    65   -30   3.54 0.2201
WVFGRD96    1.0    30    75   -20   3.53 0.2313
WVFGRD96    2.0    25    65   -30   3.68 0.3117
WVFGRD96    3.0    20    70   -50   3.77 0.3345
WVFGRD96    4.0    20    70   -50   3.79 0.3499
WVFGRD96    5.0   215    60    10   3.76 0.3762
WVFGRD96    6.0   215    60    15   3.79 0.4054
WVFGRD96    7.0   215    60    15   3.81 0.4314
WVFGRD96    8.0     5    60   -65   3.93 0.4605
WVFGRD96    9.0     5    60   -65   3.94 0.4810
WVFGRD96   10.0     0    55   -70   3.96 0.4925
WVFGRD96   11.0     0    55   -70   3.96 0.4935
WVFGRD96   12.0    10    60   -55   3.94 0.4913
WVFGRD96   13.0   210    85    35   3.92 0.4907
WVFGRD96   14.0    25    85   -30   3.93 0.4914
WVFGRD96   15.0   210    85    30   3.93 0.4886
WVFGRD96   16.0   210    85    30   3.94 0.4842
WVFGRD96   17.0   210    85    30   3.94 0.4785
WVFGRD96   18.0   210    85    30   3.95 0.4717
WVFGRD96   19.0   210    85    30   3.95 0.4647
WVFGRD96   20.0   210    85    30   3.96 0.4572
WVFGRD96   21.0   210    85    30   3.96 0.4491
WVFGRD96   22.0   210    85    30   3.97 0.4406
WVFGRD96   23.0   210    85    30   3.97 0.4319
WVFGRD96   24.0   210    85    25   3.97 0.4235
WVFGRD96   25.0   210    85    25   3.98 0.4152
WVFGRD96   26.0   210    85    25   3.98 0.4064
WVFGRD96   27.0   210    85    25   3.99 0.3974
WVFGRD96   28.0    25    90   -25   4.00 0.3880
WVFGRD96   29.0   210    85    25   3.99 0.3795

The best solution is

WVFGRD96   11.0     0    55   -70   3.96 0.4935

The mechanism correspond to the best fit is
Figure 1. Waveform inversion focal mechanism

The best fit as a function of depth is given in the following figure:

Figure 2. Depth sensitivity for waveform mechanism

The comparison of the observed and predicted waveforms is given in the next figure. The red traces are the observed and the blue are the predicted. Each observed-predicted component is plotted to the same scale and peak amplitudes are indicated by the numbers to the left of each trace. A pair of numbers is given in black at the right of each predicted traces. The upper number it the time shift required for maximum correlation between the observed and predicted traces. This time shift is required because the synthetics are not computed at exactly the same distance as the observed and because the velocity model used in the predictions may not be perfect. A positive time shift indicates that the prediction is too fast and should be delayed to match the observed trace (shift to the right in this figure). A negative value indicates that the prediction is too slow. The lower number gives the percentage of variance reduction to characterize the individual goodness of fit (100% indicates a perfect fit).

The bandpass filter used in the processing and for the display was

hp c 0.02 n 3
lp c 0.06 n 3
Figure 3. Waveform comparison for selected depth
Focal mechanism sensitivity at the preferred depth. The red color indicates a very good fit to thewavefroms. Each solution is plotted as a vector at a given value of strike and dip with the angle of the vector representing the rake angle, measured, with respect to the upward vertical (N) in the figure.

Discussion

The Future

Should the national backbone of the USGS Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) be implemented with an interstation separation of 300 km, it is very likely that an earthquake such as this would have been recorded at distances on the order of 100-200 km. This means that the closest station would have information on source depth and mechanism that was lacking here.

Acknowledgements

Dr. Harley Benz, USGS, provided the USGS USNSN digital data. The digital data used in this study were provided by Natural Resources Canada through their AUTODRM site http://www.seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/nwfa/autodrm/autodrm_req_e.php, and IRIS using their BUD interface.

Thanks also to the many seismic network operators whose dedication make this effort possible: University of Alaska, University of Washington, Oregon State University, University of Utah, Montana Bureas of Mines, UC Berkely, Caltech, UC San Diego, Saint L ouis University, Universityof Memphis, Lamont Doehrty Earth Observatory, Boston College, the Iris stations and the Transportable Array of EarthScope.

Velocity Model

The WUS used for the waveform synthetic seismograms and for the surface wave eigenfunctions and dispersion is as follows:

MODEL.01
Model after     8 iterations
ISOTROPIC
KGS
FLAT EARTH
1-D
CONSTANT VELOCITY
LINE08
LINE09
LINE10
LINE11
      H(KM)   VP(KM/S)   VS(KM/S) RHO(GM/CC)         QP         QS       ETAP       ETAS      FREFP      FREFS
     1.9000     3.4065     2.0089     2.2150  0.302E-02  0.679E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     6.1000     5.5445     3.2953     2.6089  0.349E-02  0.784E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    13.0000     6.2708     3.7396     2.7812  0.212E-02  0.476E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
    19.0000     6.4075     3.7680     2.8223  0.111E-02  0.249E-02   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    
     0.0000     7.9000     4.6200     3.2760  0.164E-10  0.370E-10   0.00       0.00       1.00       1.00    

Quality Control

Here we tabulate the reasons for not using certain digital data sets

The following stations did not have a valid response files:

DATE=Mon Sep 13 11:00:12 CDT 2010

Last Changed 2010/09/12