Location

2010/03/16 12:23:16 65.940 -150.345 18.0 4.0 Alaska

Arrival Times (from USGS)

Arrival time list

Felt Map

USGS Felt map for this earthquake

USGS Felt reports main page

Focal Mechanism

 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2010/03/16 12:23:16:0  65.94 -150.35  18.0 4.0 Alaska
 
 Stations used:
   AK.BWN AK.CCB AK.COLD AK.DDM AK.HDA AK.MDM AK.MLY AK.SCRK 
   AK.WRH CN.DAWY IU.COLA US.EGAK 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   hp c 0.02 n 3
   lp c 0.10 n 3
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 8.04e+21 dyne-cm
  Mw = 3.87 
  Z  = 15 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1      115    76   -159
   NP2       20    70   -15
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   8.04e+21      4     247
    N   0.00e+00     65     148
    P  -8.04e+21     24     339

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx    -4.53e+21
       Mxy     5.16e+21
       Mxz    -3.04e+21
       Myy     5.87e+21
       Myz     5.89e+20
       Mzz    -1.34e+21
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     --------------                  
                 -------------------###              
              -------   ------------######           
             -------- P ------------#######          
           ----------   ------------#########        
          --------------------------##########       
         #-------------------------############      
        ###------------------------#############     
        ######---------------------#############     
       #########------------------###############    
       ############---------------###############    
       ###############-----------################    
       ##################-------#################    
        ######################--################     
           ####################---##############     
         T ###################-----------######      
           ##################-----------------       
           #################-----------------        
             #############-----------------          
              ###########-----------------           
                 ######----------------              
                     --------------                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -1.34e+21  -3.04e+21  -5.89e+20 
 -3.04e+21  -4.53e+21  -5.16e+21 
 -5.89e+20  -5.16e+21   5.87e+21 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20100316122316/index.html
        

Preferred Solution

The preferred solution from an analysis of the surface-wave spectral amplitude radiation pattern, waveform inversion and first motion observations is

      STK = 20
      DIP = 70
     RAKE = -15
       MW = 3.87
       HS = 15.0

The waveform inversion is preferred.

Moment Tensor Comparison

The following compares this source inversion to others
SLU
 USGS/SLU Moment Tensor Solution
 ENS  2010/03/16 12:23:16:0  65.94 -150.35  18.0 4.0 Alaska
 
 Stations used:
   AK.BWN AK.CCB AK.COLD AK.DDM AK.HDA AK.MDM AK.MLY AK.SCRK 
   AK.WRH CN.DAWY IU.COLA US.EGAK 
 
 Filtering commands used:
   hp c 0.02 n 3
   lp c 0.10 n 3
 
 Best Fitting Double Couple
  Mo = 8.04e+21 dyne-cm
  Mw = 3.87 
  Z  = 15 km
  Plane   Strike  Dip  Rake
   NP1      115    76   -159
   NP2       20    70   -15
  Principal Axes:
   Axis    Value   Plunge  Azimuth
    T   8.04e+21      4     247
    N   0.00e+00     65     148
    P  -8.04e+21     24     339

 Moment Tensor: (dyne-cm)
    Component   Value
       Mxx    -4.53e+21
       Mxy     5.16e+21
       Mxz    -3.04e+21
       Myy     5.87e+21
       Myz     5.89e+20
       Mzz    -1.34e+21
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
                     --------------                  
                 -------------------###              
              -------   ------------######           
             -------- P ------------#######          
           ----------   ------------#########        
          --------------------------##########       
         #-------------------------############      
        ###------------------------#############     
        ######---------------------#############     
       #########------------------###############    
       ############---------------###############    
       ###############-----------################    
       ##################-------#################    
        ######################--################     
           ####################---##############     
         T ###################-----------######      
           ##################-----------------       
           #################-----------------        
             #############-----------------          
              ###########-----------------           
                 ######----------------              
                     --------------                  
                                                     
                                                     
                                                     
 Global CMT Convention Moment Tensor:
      R          T          P
 -1.34e+21  -3.04e+21  -5.89e+20 
 -3.04e+21  -4.53e+21  -5.16e+21 
 -5.89e+20  -5.16e+21   5.87e+21 


Details of the solution is found at

http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqc_mt/MECH.NA/20100316122316/index.html
	

Waveform Inversion

The focal mechanism was determined using broadband seismic waveforms. The location of the event and the and stations used for the waveform inversion are shown in the next figure.
Location of broadband stations used for waveform inversion

The program wvfgrd96 was used with good traces observed at short distance to determine the focal mechanism, depth and seismic moment. This technique requires a high quality signal and well determined velocity model for the Green functions. To the extent that these are the quality data, this type of mechanism should be preferred over the radiation pattern technique which requires the separate step of defining the pressure and tension quadrants and the correct strike.

The observed and predicted traces are filtered using the following gsac commands:

hp c 0.02 n 3
lp c 0.10 n 3
The results of this grid search from 0.5 to 19 km depth are as follow:

           DEPTH  STK   DIP  RAKE   MW    FIT
WVFGRD96    0.5    30    65    25   3.28 0.2680
WVFGRD96    1.0    25    80    10   3.29 0.2867
WVFGRD96    2.0    25    80    10   3.43 0.3871
WVFGRD96    3.0   205    90   -20   3.50 0.4142
WVFGRD96    4.0   205    90   -25   3.55 0.4445
WVFGRD96    5.0    20    70   -25   3.59 0.4715
WVFGRD96    6.0    20    70   -25   3.62 0.5032
WVFGRD96    7.0    20    70   -20   3.66 0.5293
WVFGRD96    8.0    20    70   -25   3.71 0.5578
WVFGRD96    9.0    20    70   -25   3.74 0.5770
WVFGRD96   10.0    20    70   -20   3.76 0.5937
WVFGRD96   11.0    20    70   -20   3.79 0.6067
WVFGRD96   12.0    20    70   -20   3.81 0.6157
WVFGRD96   13.0    20    70   -20   3.83 0.6213
WVFGRD96   14.0    20    70   -15   3.85 0.6255
WVFGRD96   15.0    20    70   -15   3.87 0.6265
WVFGRD96   16.0    20    70   -15   3.88 0.6239
WVFGRD96   17.0    20    70   -15   3.90 0.6190
WVFGRD96   18.0    20    70   -15   3.91 0.6117
WVFGRD96   19.0    20    70   -15   3.92 0.6009
WVFGRD96   20.0    25    70    10   3.93 0.5877
WVFGRD96   21.0    20    65   -15   3.95 0.5726
WVFGRD96   22.0    20    65   -15   3.95 0.5555
WVFGRD96   23.0    20    65   -15   3.96 0.5353
WVFGRD96   24.0    20    60   -10   3.97 0.5144
WVFGRD96   25.0    20    60   -10   3.97 0.4930
WVFGRD96   26.0    20    55   -10   3.98 0.4695
WVFGRD96   27.0    20    55    -5   3.97 0.4459
WVFGRD96   28.0   170    90   -45   4.01 0.4290
WVFGRD96   29.0   170    90   -45   4.02 0.4237

The best solution is

WVFGRD96   15.0    20    70   -15   3.87 0.6265

The mechanism correspond to the best fit is
Figure 1. Waveform inversion focal mechanism

The best fit as a function of depth is given in the following figure:

Figure 2. Depth sensitivity for waveform mechanism

The comparison of the observed and predicted waveforms is given in the next figure. The red traces are the observed and the blue are the predicted. Each observed-predicted componnet is plotted to the same scale and peak amplitudes are indicated by the numbers to the left of each trace. The number in black at the rightr of each predicted traces it the time shift required for maximum correlation between the observed and predicted traces. This time shift is required because the synthetics are not computed at exactly the same distance as the observed and because the velocity model used in the predictions may not be perfect. A positive time shift indicates that the prediction is too fast and should be delayed to match the observed trace (shift to the right in this figure). A negative value indicates that the prediction is too slow. The bandpass filter used in the processing and for the display was

hp c 0.02 n 3
lp c 0.10 n 3
Figure 3. Waveform comparison for selected depth
Focal mechanism sensitivity at the preferred depth. The red color indicates a very good fit to thewavefroms. Each solution is plotted as a vector at a given value of strike and dip with the angle of the vector representing the rake angle, measured, with respect to the upward vertical (N) in the figure.

Discussion

The Future

Should the national backbone of the USGS Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) be implemented with an interstation separation of 300 km, it is very likely that an earthquake such as this would have been recorded at distances on the order of 100-200 km. This means that the closest station would have information on source depth and mechanism that was lacking here.

Acknowledgements

Dr. Harley Benz, USGS, provided the USGS USNSN digital data. The digital data used in this study were provided by Natural Resources Canada through their AUTODRM site http://www.seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/nwfa/autodrm/autodrm_req_e.php, and IRIS using their BUD interface.

Thanks also to the many seismic network operators whose dedication make this effort possible: University of Alaska, University of Washington, Oregon State University, University of Utah, Montana Bureas of Mines, UC Berkely, Caltech, UC San Diego, Saint L ouis University, Universityof Memphis, Lamont Doehrty Earth Observatory, Boston College, the Iris stations and the Transportable Array of EarthScope.

Velocity Model

The CUS used for the waveform synthetic seismograms and for the surface wave eigenfunctions and dispersion is as follows:

MODEL.01
CUS Model with Q from simple gamma values
ISOTROPIC
KGS
FLAT EARTH
1-D
CONSTANT VELOCITY
LINE08
LINE09
LINE10
LINE11
  H(KM) VP(KM/S) VS(KM/S) RHO(GM/CC)   QP   QS  ETAP  ETAS  FREFP  FREFS
  1.0000  5.0000  2.8900  2.5000 0.172E-02 0.387E-02 0.00  0.00  1.00  1.00 
  9.0000  6.1000  3.5200  2.7300 0.160E-02 0.363E-02 0.00  0.00  1.00  1.00 
 10.0000  6.4000  3.7000  2.8200 0.149E-02 0.336E-02 0.00  0.00  1.00  1.00 
 20.0000  6.7000  3.8700  2.9020 0.000E-04 0.000E-04 0.00  0.00  1.00  1.00 
  0.0000  8.1500  4.7000  3.3640 0.194E-02 0.431E-02 0.00  0.00  1.00  1.00 

Quality Control

Here we tabulate the reasons for not using certain digital data sets

The following stations did not have a valid response files:

DATE=Tue Mar 16 20:39:44 CDT 2010

Last Changed 2010/03/16